Physiological Effects on the Brain





  • Excretion of Cocaine From the Body. (n.d.). Retrieved March 20, 2016, from Cocaine. (2013, April). Retrieved March 20, 2016, from, C. (2016, January 21). Cocaine Causes Your Brain To Literally Eat Itself, Study Finds. Retrieved March 20, 2016, from & Long-Term Side Effects of Cocaine – Brain Damage – Drug-Free World. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2016, from, J. L. (2015, April 13). Cocaine withdrawal: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 12, 2016, from


Rehabilitation Information

Our Mission. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2016, from
Providing life-changing residential and outpatient addiction treatment services for adult men and women for over 30 years. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2016, from
 “Types of Treatment Programs.” N.p., Dec. 2012. Web. 20 Apr. 2016.
Brande, Lauren. “How Much Does Rehab Cost?” N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2016.

 Welcome – Firetree, Ltd. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2016, from

Historical Perspectives


Opium Throughout History | The Opium Kings | FRONTLINE | PBS


Marijuana timeline info

Biological and Psychological Effects



Anonymous User #1: Cocaine
Anonymous User #2: Heroin
Anonymous User #3: Marijuana
Anonymous User #4: MDMA

Journal Source:


Behavioral Effects 


  • Bolla, K., Brown, K., Eldreth, D., Tate, K., & Cadet, J. (2002). Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology, 59(9), 1337-1343.
  • Hart, C. L., & Ksir, C. (2013). Drugs, Society & Human Behavior (16th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  • Kelly, T. H., Foltin, R. W., Emurian, C. S., & Fischman, M. W. (1990). Multidimensional behavioral effects of marijuana. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 14(6), 885-902.
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse. Marijuana Retrieved from on April 5, 2016.
  • Pope, H. G., Gruber, A. J., & Yurgelun-Todd, D. (2001). Residual neuropsychologic effects of cannabis. Current Psychiatry Reports, 3(6), 507-512.
  • Pope, H. G., & Yurgelun-Todd, D. (1996). The Residual Cognitive Effects of Heavy Marijuana Use in College Students. JAMA: The Journal of American Medical Association, 275(7), 521-527.


  • Araki, H., Suemaru, K., & Gomita, Y. (2002). Neuronal Nicotinic Receptor and Psychiatric Disorders: Functional and Behavioral Effects of Nicotine. The Japanese Journal of Pharmacology Jpn.J.Pharmacol, 88(2), 133-138.
  • Behavioral Health. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2016, from
  • Cherek, D. R. (1984). Effects of cigarette smoking human aggressive behavior. Prong Clin Biol Res., 333-344.
  • Hart, C. L., & Ksir, C. (2013). Drugs, Society & Human Behavior (16th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  • Heishman, S. (1999). Behavioral and cognitive effects of smoking: Relationship to nicotine addiction. Nicotine & Tob Res., 1(1), 143-147.
  • Krasnegor, N. A. (1979). The Behavioral Aspects of Smoking. Rockville, MD: Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Division of Research.


  • Brown, N. (2013). Stimulants. Palo Alto Medical Foundation.
  • Hart, C. & Ksir, C. (2012). Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior. 15, 122-143.
  • National Institute of Drug Abuse. (2014). Prescription Drug Abuse. The Science of Drug Abuse and Addiction.
  • (2016). Stimulants. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration.


  • The Effects of Heroin Use. (2012). Effects of Heroin Use.
  • Hart, C. L., & Ksir, C. (2013). Drugs, Society & Human Behavior (16th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  • Addictions And Recovery Website: Opiates. Retrieved April 26, 2016, from


  • “Depressants: Types, Examples & Facts – Video & Lesson Transcript |” N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Apr. 2016.
  • “New Health Advisor.” Is Marijuana a Depressant? N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Apr. 2016.
  • “The Three Main Categories of Drugs.” The Three Main Categories of Drugs. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Apr. 2016.


Drugs in College Culture

Street names and weird facts

  • “Street Drug Names.” Street Drugs Names. Narconon, 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2016. <>.

PSU vs SU drug use

  • Allen, Rosemarie. “Reducing Gaps in Student Performance by Addressing Student Behavior, Spring 2013.” PsycEXTRA Dataset (n.d.): n. pag. Student Drinking Spring 2013. Penn State PULSE Student Affairs, 2013. Web.

Nation vs Susquehanna Drug Use

  • Hedden, S. L., Kennet, J., Lipari, R., Medley, G., & Tice, P. (2015 September) “Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.” retrieved from <>.

I’m Shmacked & Lyric Analysis

  • Primack, B. A., Dr, Dalton, M. A., Dr. Carroll, M. V., Ms, Argawal, A. A., Mr, & Fine, M. J., Dr. (n.d.). Content Analysis of Tobacco, Alcohol,  and Other Drugs in Popular Music. Retrieved April 25, 2016, from
  • Bellum, S. (2013, April 9). Rap Music and Molly. Retrieved April 25, 2016, from